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50th Anniversary Meeting of the PCCC

50th Anniversary Meeting of the PCCC

The 50th Anniversary Meeting of the Permanent
Commission of the FIDÉ for Chess Composition (PCCC)

A retrospective and prospective view by Dr Klaus Wenda (Austria, Hon.

At the 1954 annual congress of the world chess federation (FIDÉ), a
decision was taken which was to bring about decisive changes in the small, enclosed
world of chess problems. It was the establishment of a permanent FIDÉ
subcommission dealing with all matters connected with the composition of problems
and endgame studies. The aim of the commission was to promote this artistic
form of chess and to encourage its further dissemination. The following were
designated to form the founding committee:

  • President: G.Neukomm (Hungary).
  • Vice-Presidents: A.Kazantsev (USSR), C.Kipping (UK), N.Petrovic (Yugoslavia).
  • Members: H.Dünhaupt (German Federal Republic), V.Eaton (USA),
    A.Ellerman (Argentina), P.Feenstra Kuiper (Netherlands), G.Léon-Martin
    (France) & V.Pachman (Czechoslovakia).
  • Secretary: A.Nagler (Switzerland).

The first annual constituent assembly of the subcommission (henceforth referred
to by the now usual abbreviation PCCC) took place in Budapest from May 15th
to 17th, 1956. For this meeting there were changes in personnel as follows:

  1. C.S.Kipping, the President of the International Problem Board (the only
    body which had hitherto sought to bring together the views of problemists
    of different nationalities), did not attend. The official bulletin (in French)
    stated that he had written as follows: He had no objection to the creation
    of the commission and was in agreement with the organisation of problem competitions
    by the FIDÉ. However he wished the I.P.B. to continue to exercise the
    same functions as previously. He was personally unable to accept the invitation
    for health and other reasons. This statement was interpreted as declining
    his proposed appointment as a Vice-President. The President expressed his
    regret at this and his hope that the difficulties could be surmounted.
  2. G.W.Jensch took over as commission member for the German Federal Republic.
  3. Several members who were for practical reasons unable to attend had expressed
    their views in letters to, or personal contacts with, other commission members.
  4. Messrs A.Gulyaev (Grin), L.Lindner & G.Páros attended as observers.

The numerous activities of this Budapest meeting are recorded in the 32-page
Bulletin d’Information‘ mentioned above, a document of which probably
very few original examples are still extant. Notable points were:

  • the drawing up of the commission’s statutes;
  • the nomination of more than 70 problem and study composers as international
  • the announcement of the first individual world championship in chess composition,
    in six sections: studies, #2, #3, #n, h#, & other genres (fairies);
  • the creation of procedural norms for future FIDÉ composition tourneys
  • the acknowledgement of the commission’s duty to draw up a code of rules
    for composition (later called the "Codex").

The second annual meeting was held in Vienna, from August 14th to16th, 1957.
Those present were President Neukomm, Vice-Presidents Kazantsev & Petrovic
and Members P.ten Cate (Netherlands), J.Halumbirek (Austria) & G.Jensch
(German FR). L.Lindner acted as Secretary. This meeting, among other things,
saw the unanimous adoption, in principle, of a resolution which was significantly
to shape the future working of the commission: Beginning with the period 1956-8
the commission would publish, every three years, a collection of the best compositions
of the period – the so-called FIDÉ-Albums. The selection would be made
by international judges according to criteria to be established. The primary
aim of these albums was to pursue the documentation of the top problems of a
given period, but in addition authors who were represented in these collections
by a specified number of compositions would be awarded the title of International
Master by the FIDÉ, on the recommendation of the PCCC.

One year later, from September 6th to13th, 1958, the third congress was held,
in Piran (then in Yugoslavia, now in Slovenia). This memorable meeting, which
brought together more than 50 problemists and study experts from a wide variety
of countries, has gone down in history as the first "World Congress"
of Chess Composition. (See the report by W.Speckmann in Die Schwalbe
1/1959.) Because of the premature death of Gyula Neukomm, the Commission was
now composed as follows:

  • President: N.Petrovic (Yugoslavia)
  • Vice-Presidents: C.Mansfield (UK), A.Kazantsev (USSR), J.Halumbirek
  • Members: G.Authier (France), P.ten Cate (Netherlands), N.Guttman
    (USA), G.Jensch (German FR), A.Nagler (Switzerland), V.Pachman (Czechoslovakia),
    H.Ternblad (Sweden) as well as C.Kemp (UK), who was granted the status of
    commission member (in addition to Mansfield) as an expert on Fairy Chess.
    H.Albrecht (German FR) was adviser on directmate twomovers. The special position
    of the endgame study was acknowledged by the establishment of its own subcommission
    consisting of V.Halberstadt, Kazantsev and H.Lommer.
  • Secretaries: L.Drcic & M.Dumic (Yugoslavia)

A special subcommission was given the task of turning the basic FIDÉ-Album
decision from Vienna into a detailed plan of action. The present generation
of problemists will surely be interested in a reminder of the rules established
49 years ago for the first (1956-8) album. They may be summed up as follows:
The editing and printing of the album was entrusted to a publishing house in
Zagreb under the overall supervision of the President Nenad Petrovic. This volume
was to contain 600 problems and to be published in an edition of 2000 copies.
After lengthy discussions about the proportions to be allocated to the different
genres within the album, the following solution was agreed: Twomovers 20%, Threemovers
20%, Moremovers 20%, Studies 11%, and "heterodox" compositions (i.e.
helpmates, selfmates, retros and fairies combined) 24%. So as to allow the widest
possible representation of composers, each one was allowed to enter a maximum
of 10 compositions in any one section and 20 overall. A decision about the number
of points to be required for the award of the ‘International Master’ title was
left to be taken by a later congress and was in fact not reached until Leipzig
1960. In my view these circumstances indicate that the documentary purpose was
uppermost in the minds of those responsible for the introduction of the albums.
On the other hand they did not (and could not) neglect the argument that the
artistic achievements of composers would become better known as a result of
the award of master titles, thus raising their profile among a wider chess public.
This publicity would be very much in line with the commission’s duty to promote
artistic chess and further its dissemination.

The selection of album problems was made according to a complicated system
which there is not space to explain in detail here, each section having a team
consisting of a director and preliminary and special judges. An important feature
was the principle that these bodies, once established by the commission, would
enjoy complete independence.

Thereafter meetings of the PCCC were held regularly every year except 1963
and 1970, when there were organisational difficulties. Consequently the problem
and study enthusiasts present at the October 2007 meeting in Rhodes (Greece)
will be participating in the 50th anniversary congress. In the past 51 years
the commission has grown and blossomed out from the mere 10 member countries
represented at the inaugural 1956 meeting to the current total of nearly 40,
and has done full justice to the task set for it by its visionary founders:
the promotion and dissemination of chess composition. WCCT, WCCI and WCSC are
abbreviations for competitions regularly organised by the commission; they have
become concepts which are familiar to everyone concerned with problems and studies.
For almost 30 years the commission meetings have shared a date and a venue with
the annual solving world championship (WCSC), a combination which extends their
appeal to a wider range of people and has led to mutually beneficial encounters
between composers, solvers and players. In this way congresses such as the one
in Moscow 2003 have become impressive chess events with more than 200 participants
and significant media attention.

However the meetings have not only served for the exchange of chessical ideas,
they have also offered the opportunity to get to know each host country, its
people and its culture. Personal contact with people whom one previously knew
only as abstract names over chess diagrams has led in many cases to friendships
lasting decades, based on a shared enthusiasm for chess which transcends national
and linguistic boundaries. Individual friendly contacts of that kind are among
my own best experiences during the period when I took an active part in 25 PCCC-congresses,
from 1967 to 2001.

In the list of host countries from 1956 to 2007, 19 different names appear:

  • The Netherlands five times;
  • Germany, Israel, Russia/USSR & Yugoslavia four times each;
  • Austria, Finland, France, Greece & the UK three times each;
  • Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Italy & Spain twice each, and
  • Denmark, Slovakia, Slovenia and Switzerland once each.

The first FIDÉ album was a relatively thin volume with 603 diagrams
and only brief solutions. (An Annex contained an additional 58 problems selected
by N.Petrovic but they did not count towards the Master title.) Since then,
including the 1998-2000 album, 19 volumes have appeared, with the 15 three-yearly
issues since 1956 being supplemented by four retrospective issues, three covering
the period from 1914 to 44 and another dealing with 1945-55. The last five are
sumptuously produced and comprehensive chess reference works, each with more
than 1000 diagrams, detailed solutions with elucidations, and valuable theme
indexes in French, German and English, thus both satisfying the bibliophile
and fulfilling the documentary purpose of the albums.

Naturally very few of the generation of the commission’s ‘founding fathers’
are still alive, and none of them is any longer actively involved in the work
of the commission. They have been succeeded by a new generation of idealistic
‘representatives’. In using that general term I mean to include not only the
members of the presidium, the secretaries and the individual delegates but also
the numerous helpers and advisers on the subcommissions who, without directly
belonging to the PCCC itself, nevertheless bring to it their knowledge and experience
in many specialised fields. Without the indispensable assistance of all these
people the PCCC would not be in a position to fulfil its increasingly wide and
diverse range of obligations. Everyone concerned is now called upon to come
up with new ideas and projects to meet the challenge of the recent lightning
developments in information technology, yet without losing sight of what it
is important to preserve.

‘Panta rhei’, all things are in a state of flux, as the Greek philosopher
Herakleitos was among the first to recognise. There is no doubt that the status
of the contemplative occupation of chess problems among the young is lower nowadays;
that is confirmed by an alarming lack of young problemists in virtually all
the member countries. It only makes the task of the commission more important,
though: creating new incentives and new ways to arouse interest in chess composition.
I know that there is no easy answer, but the important thing, in accordance
with Herakleitos’s dictum, is to recognise new trends quickly and react to them

With that in mind, I wish the PCCC another five decades of effective activity
on behalf of chess composition, in the spirit of solidarity which binds together
our international chess community – gens una sumus!

Vienna, September 2007
Klaus Wenda


Minutes Wageningen 2001

Minutes Wageningen 2001


XLIV. Meeting in Wageningen, The Netherlands 28.7 – 4.8.2001

Official Participants

Bedrich FORMÁNEK, Slovakia, President
Jakov VLADIMIROV, Russia, 1st Vice-President
Kjell WIDLERT, Sweden, 2nd Vice-President
Milan VELIMIROVIC, Yugoslavia, 3rd Vice-President
Günter BÜSING, Germany, Secretary
Helmut ZAJIC, Austria, Delegate
Anatoliy PERIVERDIYEV, Azerbayjan, Deputy for Agshin Masimov
Ignaas VANDEMEULEBROUCKE, Belgium, Delegate
Fadil ABDURAHMANOVIC, Bosnia-Hercegovina, Delegate
Josip VARGA, Croatia, Delegate
Michal DRAGOUN, Czechia, Deputy for Jiri Jelinek
Kaare VISSING ANDERSEN, Denmark, Delegate
Hannu HARKOLA, Finland, Delegate
Michel CAILLAUD, France, Delegate
David GURGENIDZE, Georgia, Delegate
Bernd ELLINGHOVEN, Germany, Delegate
John RICE, Great Britain, Delegate
Byron ZAPPAS, Greece, Delegate
László LINDNER, Hungary, Deputy for Gábor Cseh
Uri AVNER, Israel, Delegate
Francesco SIMONI, Italy, Delegate
Tadashi WAKASHIMA, Japan, Delegate
Zivko JANEVSKI, Macedonia, Delegate
Henk le GRAND, The Netherlands, Delegate
Wladislaw ROSOLAK, Poland, Delegate
Mircea MANOLESCU, Romania, Deputy for Virgil Nestorescu
Marko KLASINC, Slovenia, Delegate
Thomas MAEDER, Switzerland, Delegate
Evgeni REITSEN, Ukraine, Delegate
Mike PRCIC, USA, Deputy for Newman Guttman
Klaus WENDA, Austria, Honorary President
Barry BARNES, Great Britain, Honorary Member

Initially 25 of the 38 member countries were represented. After the late arrival
of some delegates 29 of the 38 member countries were represented.

Alexandr Feoktistov participated in the opening session as deputy for Jakov
Vladimirov. Paul Valois participated in the final session as deputy for John

Active visitors fulfilling tasks as members of subcommittees, tourney directors,
assistant directors, etc., were:
Peter Bakker, Dirk Borst (The Netherlands), Andrey Selivanov, Nikolai Kralin
(Russia), Zvonimir Hernitz (Croatia), Marjan Kovacevic (Yugoslavia), Marek Kolcák
(Slovakia), Hans Gruber (Germany), Marco Bonavoglia (Italy), Yochanan Afek (Israel),
Alexander Hildebrand (Sweden), Harri Hurme (Finland) and John Roycroft (Great
Britain). Also several Dutch assistants worked very effectively in the background.

§1 Opening address, remembrance for deceased problemists

After words of welcome President Bedrich Formánek expressed his thanks for
the organization of the meeting to Henk le Grand and to the Nederlandse Bond
van Schaakprobleemvrienden, and then declared the meeting open.

Then the President announced with regret the death of several prominent problemists.
The Commission paid tribute to the deceased composers Werner Speckmann (Germany,
21.8.1913-23.2.2001), Jaroslav Brada (Czechia, 26.5.1925-10.2.2001), Johan Hubert
Vlengals (The Netherlands, 24.3.1921-10.10.2000), Cornelis de Toom (The Netherlands,
7.10.1917-23.3.2001), Vilmos Schneider (Hungary, 5.1.1933-26.3.2001), Thomas
Russel (Great Britain, 27.9.1925-6.8.2000) and Colin Vaughan (Great Britain,

§2 Verification of Attendance and Voting Rights

Initially, 25 member countries out of 38 were represented. The meeting was
declared legal.

§3 Approval of the Pula minutes 2000

The minutes of the 43rd Meeting in Pula (2000) were approved with the following
correction concerning §7.I:
The assistants to the 24th WCSC were Neal Turner and Christopher Jones.

§4 Checking of the Standing Subcommittees

1. WCCT:

2. WCCI:
Last year’s member V. Melnichenko was not present.

3. WCSC:
year’s member V. Melnichenko was not present.

4. FIDE-album:
GRUBER. K. Solja also took part in the work.

5. Qualifications:
WENDA. The regular members J. Jelínek and V. Nestorescu were not present. They
were replaced for this year by M. Bonavoglia and M. Manolescu.

6. Computer Matters:

7. Studies:
year’s member H. Aloni was not present.

8. Terminology (Dormant):
J. RICE (Spokesman), B. FORMÁNEK, Z. JANEVSKI, M. DRAGOUN. Former member A.
Slesarenko was not present.

9. Codex:

10. Presidium Election Procedure:
K. WENDA (Spokesman), J. RICE, T. MAEDER

11. Judging:
J. RICE (Spokesman), U. AVNER, J. ROYCROFT. Last year’s member A. Slesarenko
was not present.

§5 Proposals by Members

5.I Proposal by Denmark (Jan Mortensen)
The proposal to nominate Jan Mortensen as an Honorary Member of the Commission
was accepted by the Commission in a unanimous vote (all 27 present delegates
in favour). Kaare Vissing Andersen expressed thanks for this honor on behalf
of Jan Mortensen who, for health reasons, is no longer active as a problemist.

5.II Proposal by Israel (Titles for composing)
Günter Büsing reported to the Commission that the Presidium had discussed the
proposal submitted by Uri Avner. This proposal, in short, suggests modifying
the present system for granting the title of Grandmaster for Chess Composition
by awarding 1.4 points for each problem (not study) published in the album.
The Presidium also considered alternative possibilities for modifying the present
system; in particular:
a) maintaining the present point system but reducing the number of points required
for the title;
b) introducing the new title of a Honorary Grandmaster.
Although there was some feeling in the Presidium that the step from the title
of International Master to Grandmaster is very large (25 to 70 points), there
was no clear opinion which modification, if any, to the present system would
be best. It appeared that each of the possibilities that have been considered
has some advantage but also may cause difficulties. A general difficulty related
to each of the possibilities is the danger of title inflation, and the fact
that Grandmasters who obtained the title under the present system might feel
that the title is devalued.
Some particular problems of the possibilities were addressed:
i) the proposal as submitted by Uri Avner seems to result in practical difficulties.
Specifically, the retroactive part of the proposal requires a lot of recalculation;
ii) the introduction of a title of Honorary Grandmaster would make it difficult
for the Commission to refuse an application for this title because that might
be considered as an offence against a deserved composer, whereas acceptance
of such applications might result in title inflation.

As the Presidium had no clear opinion in favour of any one of the possibilities,
the matter was discussed in the full Commission.

In the ensuing discussion, Uri Avner argued that if there are composers in
the 50 to 70 album points range who are „really grandmasters" but do not have
the title, then something seems to be wrong with the system. He stressed that
the gap between the norms for International Master and Grandmaster is too large
and also observed an injustice between problems and studies. His proposal requires
having 50 problems in the album for reaching the norm of 70 points. Compared
to the 42 studies that are equivalent to 70 points under the present system,
there would still be a difference between study and problem but not as large
as before.

Several delegates expressed their concern about „changes with the winds", others
preferred to have more statistical information before taking a decision, and
still others considered it important to keep the level high. The President finally
summarized that obviously the general opinion of the Commisssion was not in
favour of introducing the title of Honorary Grandmaster and postponed the discussion
until the next meeting in Portoroz. The President invited everyone to send his
opinion to the Commission or write an article for the PCCC web site.

5.III Proposal by Israel (Presidential terms of office)
The proposal as submitted by Uri Avner was to limit the number of times any
one person can be elected as president to not more than two. Kjell Widlert reported
to the Commission that the Presidium (without the President taking part in that
discussion) did not support the proposal because it felt that it might be difficult
in some instances to find good candidates for presidency out of a restricted
number of eligible persons. It was not felt to be necessary to decide in advance
on a restricted period of office.

Uri Avner stood by the proposal and assumed that enough candidates would always
be available. Bernd Ellinghoven saw no need to change the system because it
is always possible to elect another president if the Commission feels that there
is a better candidate. John Rice observed that the situation in the Commission
is not comparable to various other organizations where presidents have a wide
spectrum of power, which may require more restrictive rules.

Before the Commission voted on the proposal, the President observed that the
acceptance of the proposal would imply an amendment of the Statutes and therefore
a two thirds majority was required. In the vote, the proposal was rejected (2
in favour, 15 against, 9 abstentions).

5.IV Proposal by Slovakia (Honorary Master for Chess Composition)
The proposal submitted by Bedrich Formánek to rename the present title "Honorary
Master of Problem Chess" as the more general "Honorary Master of Chess
Composition", which implies a corresponding amendment of the Statutes, was accepted
by the Commision with the necessary 2/3 majority in a vote (25 in favour, 2

5.V Proposal by John Rice and John Roycroft (Title of FIDE Judge)
The proposal not to accept awards made during WCCC and similar meetings or festivals
in support of applications for the title of FIDE judge when the closing date
is during that congress, meeting or festival, was generally accepted by the
Commission (no voting).

5.VI Proposal by Great Britain (solver norms)
Following Great Britain’s proposal to establish a system for gaining solving
norms in tourneys other than the WCSC, as submitted in 1995 and discussed during
the 43rd meeting in Pula 2000, the WCSC subcommittee was now satisfied with
the opinion of the experts who considered the details of the rating methods.
The system based on the documents annexed to these minutes (ANNEXES
) was accepted by the Commission in a vote (19 in favour, 4 abstentions,
none against). Marko Klasinc, the spokesman of the subcommittee, expressed his
thanks to Harri Hurme and Marek Kolcák as well as the persons standing behind
them for establishing the rating system. Hannu Harkola especially mentioned
Timo Kallio as someone who was very influential when one of the systems was
created. Marko Klasinc further noted that the new system will be valid for future
events but that no retroactive application is foreseen in the accepted package.

Marko Klasinc observed that the Commission should now receive results from
solving tournaments which fulfil the criteria for gaining norms and asked to
whom these results should be given. The proposal to send the results to a working
group consisting of himself, Marek Kolcák and Harri Hurme was generally accepted.

The spokesman of the WCSC subcommittee, Marko Klasinc, informed the Commission
that there are some proposals to change the rules for the WCSC. The material
has been collected and will be considered during the year. Presumably, a proposal
can be presented next year. Among the proposals, there are ideas to raise the
number of twomovers to 5, each scoring 3 points, and to change the order of
the rounds (e.g. not to start with the twomovers). The spokesman also reported
that a solver from Romania with an other nationality but permanently living
in Romania had been accepted as a member of the solving team. The Commission
also discussed the proposal to let juniors and/or women take part in next year’s
WCSC hors concours. The result, without a vote, was that this is acceptable
for the Commission provided the additional solvers participate unofficially.
It depends on the organizers of the event whether they offer a separate section
for juniors and/or women.

5.VIII Further proposals
Further proposals were discussed in various subcommittees and are referred to
under other paragraphs of these minutes (§6 Competitions, FIDE-Album, §7 Qualifications).

§ 6 Competitions

6.I 25th World Chess Solving Championship

Peter Bakker, assisted by Dirk Borst, directed the 25th WCSC. The spokesman
of the subcommittee especially thanked the organizers for a perfectly run tournament.
The final results were as follows:

a) Teams:

1. Israel 142.50 points (659 min).
2. Finland 135.50 (664)
3. Poland 134.50 (706)
4. Great Britain 132.50 (720)
5. Yugoslavia 129.50 (658)
6. Germany 127.50 (691)
7. Netherlands 127.50 (693)
8. France 117.50 (694)
9. Ukraine 115.50 (710)
10. Russia 115.00 (684)
11. Slovenia 114.00 (719)
12. Japan 111.00 (688)
13. Belgium 105.00 (715)
14. Romania 103.00 (712)
15. Slovakia 98.50 (679)
16. Macedonia 85.00 (719)
17. Croatia 83.00 (720)
18. Greece 54.50 (706)
19. Italy 37.00 (716)

b) Individuals:

1. Jorma Paavilainen (Finland) 75.00 points (330 min.)
2. Piotr Murdzia (Poland) 72.00 (346)
3. Boris Tummes (Germany) 71.50 (343)
4. Noam Elkies (Israel) 70.00 (337)
5. Vladimir Podinic (Yugoslavia) 66.00 (327)
6. Michel Caillaud (France) 66.00 (347)
7. Eddy van Beers (Belgium) 63.50 (355)
8. Tadashi Wakashima (Japan) 63.00 (339)
9. Ram Soffer (Israel) 61.50 (336)
10. Jonathan Mestel (Great Britain) 61.50 (360)
10. Alexandr Azhusin (Russia) 61.50 (360)
10. Bogusz Piliczewski (Poland) 61.50 (360)
and 62 further participants.

6.II 6th WCCT
On behalf of the tournament director Hemmo Axt (not present), Günter Büsing
informed the Commission that the tournament has been completed. The booklet
with the results had been sent to the team captains in June. Cups and diplomas
for the most successful teams and individual composers were presented during
the final banquet of this meeting. A letter from the tournament director including
suggestions for the organisation of future WCCTs was forwarded to the subcommittee.
Uri Avner, spokesman of the subcommittee, expressed his thanks to the tournament
director and his helpers but also raised harsh criticism about the awards in
some sections for not being at all satisfactory. He concluded that in future
WCCTs it might be important for the director to play a more active role and
look closer to the awards. Günter Büsing observed that the sections particularly
referred to were those from which the awards were received at a very late stage.
Additional contacts with the judges would therefore have resulted in further

6.III 7th WCCT
The announcement of the 7th WCCT was prepared by selection of themes and judging
countries. A table showing the judging countries for each section is annexed
to these minutes (ANNEX 4). Macedonia will organize
the tournament, with Zivko Janevski acting as the tournament director. It was
suggested (and actually happened) that the themes be published on the PCCC web
site even before the official announcement was distributed.
Uri Avner raised a question about who should be responsible for answering questions
from the team captains relating to the themes. Formerly this was done by the
judges, but that is not applicable with the new system of judging. It was agreed
that, in simple cases, the tournament director and the spokesman of the subcommittee,
if possible in consultation with the person who proposed the theme, should reply.
If necessary, the other members of the subcommittee should also be involved.

Subcommittee spokesman Marko Klasinc informed the Commission that the announcement
of the WCCI for the period 1998 – 2000 had been made in the meantime, and that
first entries had already been received. The closing date is 31.10.2001. Marko
Klasinc was optimistic that the tournament might be completed by time for next
year’s meeting, provided the judges finish their work as swiftly as expected.
According to his time table, judges should receive the entries by 1.12.2001
and should finish their work within three to four months. The individual scores
could then be calculated in April 2002 and the results (point scores, not the
compositions on which the result is based) be published on the PCCC web site.
The final result, including the compositions, could then be published in summer
2002 in a booklet. It is intended to include into the booklet four the top rated
entries of the three first placed composers in each section.

A discussion arose because Jakov Vladimirov objected to the nomination of judges
in one section. He considered these judges did not have enough experience for
judging a World Championship and should therefore be replaced by others. Marko
Klasinc replied that the most difficult task in the preparation of the announcement
of the WCCI was to find judges. He stressed that the three nominated judges
have the title of international judge, although one of them in an other section,
and he strongly objected to any changes in the list of judges. He also noted
that the announcement had already been published on the PCCC web site and that
publication in various magazines is under preparation and could no longer be
stopped. After further discussion, it was decided not to change the judges (no

6.V FIDE-Album, Report by the Subcommittee

6.V.1 FIDE Album 1986-1988
The spokesman Kjell Widlert informed the Commission that the reprint of the
album 1986-1988, including some corrections to the first edition and now in
three languages, is now available.

6.V.2 FIDE Album 1992-1994
This album has just been published and the first copies were available during
the congress. Kjell Widlert expressed his thanks to the editors for this marvellous
book. Byron Zappas said that the albums were becoming increasingly large, owing
to repetitions in theme indexes which he considered as sometimes superfluous.
He also argued that there was too much statistical material in the album. Bernd
Ellinghoven replied that the present album is the result of an agreement between
the editors, i.e. Denis Blondel and himself. He further indicated that it is
under discussion whether the present form of the album will be maintained or
whether some modifications will be made in future.

Kjell Widlert addressed one specific problem which was also related to the
qualification subcommittee: After publication of the album but before a decision
by the Commission concerning the granting of titles on the basis of this album,
four compositions therein were found to be incorrect (3 studies, one selfmate).
The question now was whether the composers of the respective compositions should
or should not get the respective album points. In the ensuing discussion, the
general opinion was that upon publication the album is finalised and must be
taken as it is. Klaus Wenda pointed to the Statutes which merely require that
a composition must be "in the album". There is no rule that the Commission
has the power to confirm or refuse compositions once they are in the album.
It was also noted that it always happened that some compositions were found
to be incorrect after publication of an album and that the points were never
withdrawn. As there was general agreement on this issue, the President concluded
that the points would be counted.

6.V.3 FIDE Album 1995-1997
The judging of the entries for this album is being done now. In two sections
(retros and studies), the judges have already finished their work. In the helpmate
section, a problem has arisen because a reserve judge has to be nominated. An
optimistic time schedule foresees publication of the album in two years, provided
the judging is ready within one year.

6.V.4 FIDE-Album 1998-2000
The announcement for this album has been delayed and will be made in the coming
autumn or winter. The closing date will be fixed after the final nomination
of all judges and directors.

§7 Qualifications

Granting of titles, proposals and report by the Qualification Subcommittee:

Spokesman Ignaas Vandemeulebroucke gave a report on the work of the subcommittee.
He presented two forms that have been drafted by the subcommittee and which
should in future be used for the application for the title of International
Judge. One form relates to personal matters of the applicant, the other form
is related to the awards submitted by the applicant. These forms are annexed
to these minutes (ANNEXES 5, 6).
A list of international judges including 180 names, about 150 thereof with addresses,
was distributed. The Spokesman stressed that this list is to be considered as
containing restricted personal data; therefore it should not be put into the
internet. To keep the list updated, any changes of addresses etc. should be
forwarded to Ignaas Vandemeulebroucke.

After evaluation of the new FIDE-album, the solving tournaments and applications
for titles, the subcommittee made the following proposals concerning grant of

7.I Grandmaster for Chess Composition
The subcommittee proposed to grant the title of Grandmaster for Chess Composition

Virgil Nestorescu, Romania (72,17 album points).

7.II International Master for Chess Composition
The subcommittee proposed to grant the title of International Master for Chess
Composition to

Peter Gvozdják, Slovakia (32,83 album points)
Camillo Gamnitzer, Austria (30,00)
Viacheslav Kopaev, Russia (29,75)
Harry Fougiaxis, Greece (28,67)
Colin Sydenham, Great Britain (26,50)
Zdravko Maslar, Germany (26,50)
Viktor Sizonenko, Ukraine (25,50)
Hubert Gockel, Germany (25,00)

7.III FIDE Master for Chess Composition
The subcommittee proposed to grant the title of FIDE Master for Chess Composition

Wieland Bruch, Germany (19,83 album points)
Marcel Tribowski, Germany (19,33)
Aleksandr Postnikov, Ukraine (16,83)
Jacques Rotenberg, France (16,25)
Andrey Frolkin, Ukraine (16,00)
Gerhard Maleika, Germany (15,50)
Francesco Simoni, Italy (15,00)
Jury Gorbatenko, Russia (14,00)
Sergey Sacharov, Russia (14,00)
Marek Kwiatkowski, Poland (13,83)
Günther Jahn, Germany (13,67)
Christian Poisson, France (13,58)
Nikita Plaksin, Russia (13,50)
Amatzia Avni, Israel (13,33)
Pavel Arestov, Russia (13,22)
Christer Jonsson, Sweden (13,17)
Martin Hoffmann, Switzerland (13,00)
Donald Smedley, Great Britain (12,67)
Nikos Siotis, Greece (12,33)
Vladimir Kos, Czechia (12,00)
Manfred Rittirsch, Germany (12,00)

7.IV International Judges
There were 4 applications for the title and one for extension of the title.
The subcommittee recommended to award the title of international judge to:

Mario Parrinello, Italy, 2#, h#
Valerio Petrovici, Romania, 2#, s#
Harold van der Heijden, Netherlands, studies
Vladimir Petrovic Sytchev, Belarus, 2#, 3#

The subcommittee further recommended to extend the title of

Zvonimir Hernitz to the sections 3# and s#.

7.V Titles for solvers

Grandmaster in solving for

Noam Elkies, Israel

FIDE Master in solving for

Eddy van Beers, Belgium;
David Gurgenidze, Georgia;
Michael McDowell, Great Britain;
Wilfried Neef, Germany.

All the above proposals by the qualification subcommittee were accepted unanimously
(except for one case where a title candidate abstained from voting for himself)
by the Commission in a series of votes.

Norms for solvers
Based on the results of the open solving tourney and WCSC, norms as follows
were additionally fulfilled:

Grandmaster norms for Solving for

Piotr Murdzia, Poland (2nd norm).

International Master norms in solving for

Vladimir Podinic, Yugoslavia;
Eddy van Beers, Belgium;
Bogusz Piliczewski, Poland;
Peter van den Heuvel, Netherlands;
Mitja Ukmar, Slovenia;
Michael McDowell, Great Britain

FIDE Master norms in solving for

Bogusz Piliczewski, Poland;
Vladimir Podinic, Yugoslavia.

§8 Computer Matters, Report by the Subcommittee

Thomas Maeder gave a report on the activities of the subcommittee for computer
matters which had concentrated on the following points:

1.The Macedonian database containing personal data of problemists (name, age,
etc.) will soon be available, in some form which is not yet clear, on the internet.

2. With regard to collections (PDB and others), very little response has been
received to the questionnaire of two years ago. Thomas Maeder considered this
as a failure of the initiative to update collections on a broad basis.

3. The subcommittee suggested that the internet might be a suitable tool for
supporting the authors of the FIDE album indexes.

4. As the condition required in the fairy section of the 7th WCCT was not supported
by currently available solving programs, the subcommittee encouraged programmers
of solving programs to add the condition to the respective programs, if possible.
(In the meantime, this has been done for "Popeye" and will presumably
also soon be included into "Chloe".)

5. The proposal of the subcommittee to consider Hannu Harkola’s website (
as the official website of the Commission was generally accepted. The subcommittee
further suggested to provide links to other important sites, e.g. sites which
are run by magazines or national organisations.

6. The work on a standard format for exchange of chess problem data between
different programs is progressing but not yet finished. Some input concerning
studies is expected from Harold van der Heijden.

§9 Studies subcommittee

John Roycroft reported to the Commission that the studies subcommittee had
assisted the WCCT subcommittee and provided a theme for the 7th WCCT. The selection
of the study of the year for the period 1995-1997 has been delayed until the
album judges have made their decisions. He was optimistic that the results might
be available within a short time, and the result will then be given to the PCCC
internet site.

§10 Codex, Report by the Subcommittee

The subcommittee had no meeting because there was no subject-matter to be discussed.

§11 Presidium Election Procedure, Report by the Subcommittee

Klaus Wenda, spokesman of the subcommittee, presented to the Commission a draft
for a new § IV of the Statutes. The draft was discussed and modified in some
minor points, and a modification of §III.6 of the Statutes in consequence of
the amendment to § IV was also discussed. The wording of amended §III.6 and
of new §IV is annexed to these minutes (ANNEX 7). In
a vote, these amendments were accepted by the Commission (22 in favour, 1 abstention,
none against).

§12 Judging, Report by the Subcommittee

The subcommittee had no meeting, owing to other commitments.

§13 Future Meetings and future WCSC

Invitation 2002: The invitation by the Slovenian Federation to have
the meeting in Portoroz, which had been accepted during the previous meeting,
was confirmed and a date (August 31 to September 7, 2002) and location for the
event was announced by Marko Klasinc.

Invitation 2003: The invitation by the Ukrainian Federation to have
the meeting in Truskavets, which had been accepted during the previous meeting,
was confirmed. A PCCC delegation, presumably the President and the First Vice-President,
will visit Truskavets in May 2002. In reply to the question how Truskavets can
be reached, Vladislav Rosolak said that it might perhaps be possible to arrange
bus transport from Warsaw directly to Truskavets. Marko Klasinc asked whether
a reserve venue would be available in the event of Truskavets being unable to
organise the meeting. The President replied that in such a case Russia would
be in a position to organise the meeting in Sochi.

Further Invitations: At present, there are no invitations for further

§14 Any other Business

14.I On the occassion of the 25th WCSC, the Commission expressed its
gratitude to Nicolai Dimitrov who initiated the international team solving championships.

14.II Marko Klasinc mentioned that there is a website run by Lubomir
Siran which concentrates on solving competitions (

14.III Marko Klasinc reminded the Commission that it is now time to
establish the title of international judge for solving tournaments. Lists should
be prepared with names of good and experienced judges. The matter was postponed
until next year.

14.IV Byron Zappas suggested putting on the agenda for the next meeting
how chess composition can be represented in the Chess Olympics.

As there was no further other business, the President finally noted that the
meeting took place in a friendly atmosphere and he expressed his thanks for
the good work of the delegates, the Secretary, the subcommittees and the organizers
of this meeting, and then declared the meeting closed.


Bratislava, September 2001

München, September 2001
Dr. B. Formánek G. Büsing
President Secretary


1 Rules for rating calculation
2 Solvers rating & Criteria for acceptability of the tournaments
at which ratings can be gained

3 Criteria for gaining norms & Criteria for gaining titles
4 Table of judging countries for the 7th WCCT
5 Application form for internationl judge (personal)
6 Application form for international judge (awards)
7 Amendment of Statutes
(List of addresses)

Annex 1 to Minutes Wageningen 2001

Rules for rating calculation

The basis for calculating ratings at a solving tournament is
the average of ratings of all solvers with ratings (AveRat) and the
average of achieved results of those solvers (AveRes).

AveRat = average rating of all solvers with ratings (subtracting
by 1600)
AveRes = average result of all solvers with ratings

New rating for a solver without rating is calculated
as a performance rating at a tournament upon the formula:

NewRat = AveRat × Res / AveRes

NewRat = new rating
Res = result of a solver achieved at a tournament

Solver’s first new rating is called half-rating. At his
second tournament he gets his second half-rating. The average of his both
half-ratings is calculated and put to the rating list.

Change of rating for a solver with rating:

The expected result (ExpRes) is calculated for
all solvers with ratings upon the formula:

ExpRes = AveRes × OldRat / AveRat

OldRat = rating of a solver before tournament

The expected result cannot exceed 100% of the winner’s result.
In such a case the correction (CorrExpRes) is made upon the

CorrExpRes = AveRes + (ExpResAveRes)
× (MaxResAveRes) / ( MaxExpResAveRes)

CorrExpRes = corrected expected result (cannot exceed
100% of the winner’s result)
MaxRes = result of the winner
MaxExpRes = the highest expected result before correction (higher than
the winner’s result)

Change of rating (ChOfRat) is calculated from
the difference between the expected result and the achieved result upon the

ChOfRat = KT × (ResExpRes)

KT = tournament coefficient (from 1 to 4)

If the problems at the tournament are not given 5 points each
the KT is corrected upon the formula:

CorrKT = KT × 5 × N / AbsMaxRes

CorrKT = corrected tournament coefficient
N = number of problems at the tournament
AbsMaxRes = theoretical MaxRes at the tournament

New rating is calculated upon the formula:

NewRat = OldRat + ChOfRat

If NewRat is negative it is corrected to zero. All calculations
are made to the second decimal place. Ratings are published as integers. For
publishing use the ratings are increased by 1600.

After five years of non-participating at the rated tournaments
a solver is expelled from the rating list. For the further participation his
original rating (half-rating) is accepted.

Annex 2 to MinutesWageningen 2001

Solvers’ rating

A rating is a numerical value which a solver gains by solving
in two approved tournaments.

A rating can be gained at the WCSC, WCCC-Open, or other tournaments
which fulfil definite criteria.

The rating list is published twice a year. It is calculated
on the basis of the results of solving tournaments completed (including the
report) by the end of June and the end of December.

The PCCC gives authority to a person(s) or a commission responsible
for calculating the ratings according to the approved formula.

Criteria for acceptability of the tournaments
at which ratings can be gained

At the tournament at least 10 solvers with ratings from at least
2 countries (15 from at least 3 countries for gaining norms) should compete.

The selected problems should be originals or alternatively unknown
published problems. The selected problems should show a clear theme and a
good level of quality and difficulty and should represent different styles.

For tournaments organised according to WCSC rules, the full
coefficient may be used to calculate ratings.

For other tournaments at most one half of the normal coefficient
is used to calculate ratings. In those tournaments there should be at least
12 problems of different types to solve. Problems for solving can be chosen
from seven groups: twomovers, threemovers, moremovers, endgames, helpmates,
selfmates and fairy problems. At the tournament at least 5 groups with at
least 2 problems must be represented. No group can be represented with more
than 3 problems. The tournament could be divided into several rounds and/or
days. If the problems are not given the 5 points each the tournament coefficient
is corrected for calculating ratings.

All tournament documentation (problems with solutions, complete
list with the results and ratings, judge’s statement on the competition acceptability
and possible complaints, etc) should be sent to the responsible PCCC representative
(commission) within 30 days after the end of the competition. The representative
(commission) has the right to confirm or not the acceptability of the tournament
and may determine the tournament coefficient. The final decision is approved
by the PCCC.

Annex 3 to MinutesWageningen 2001

Criteria for gaining norms

At least 5 solvers with the obligatory qualifying rating (2400 for FM, 2500
for IM, 2600 for GM) should compete at the tournament.

A norm for the title of International Solving Grandmaster of the FIDE: To obtain
a norm a solver must score at least 90% of the winner’s points. With the exception
of the WCSC he must be placed within the number of solvers with the rating of
at least 2600 (not counting his own rating), but not lower than in tenth place
(i.e. at least sixth place when there are six solvers with rating 2600 or higher).
At the official WCSC a solver must take one of the first ten places regardless
of the ratings.

A norm for the title of International Solving Master of the FIDE: To obtain
a norm a solver must score at least 80% of the winner’s points. With the exception
of the WCSC he must be placed within the number of solvers with the rating of
at least 2500 (not counting his own rating), but not lower than 15th place.
At the official WCSC a solver must take one of the first 15 places regardless
of the ratings.

A norm for the title of FIDE Solving Master: To obtain a norm a solver must
score at least 75% of the winner’s points. With the exception of the WCSC and
WCCC-Open he must be placed within the number of solvers with the rating of
at least 2400 (not counting his own rating), but not lower than within the top
40% of the solvers. At the official WCSC and WCCC-Open a solver must take one
of the top 40% places regardless of the ratings.

Criteria for gaining titles

International Solving Grandmaster of the FIDE: A solver must gain a norm 3
times (at least once at the WCSC) within a period of ten years.

International Solving Master of the FIDE: A solver must gain a norm twice (at
least once at the WCSC or WCCC-Open) within a period of five years; or score
once 100% of the winner’s points and qualify within the first 15 places at the

FIDE Solving Master: A solver must gain a norm twice; or score once 100% of
the winner’s points and qualify within the top 40% places at the WCCC-Open (or
at the WCSC if not within the first 15 places).

Annex 4 to Minutes Wageningen 2001

7th WCCT Judgement
Allocation of countries to sections


















































Great Britain


































































J = appointed as judge in the specified section
R = appointed as reserve judge in the specified section

Annex 5 to Minutes Wageningen 2001

Subcommittee on Qualifications


Application for the
Award of the Title of International Judge on Composition

The Federation of
herewith applies for granting the title of International judge on Composition





First name(s)


Place and date of birth

(street a.o.)


Place, region




Telephone, and/or Fax


E-mail or other(s)


Section(s) applied for


Knowledge of languages


List of tournaments and awards

detailed information on
tournaments and awards
(each on separate B-form)


Annex 6 to Minutes Wageningen 2001

Subcommittee on Qualifications


Application for
the Award of the Title of International Judge on Composition


on Tournaments and Awards

1 Name
of the Tournament
2 Organised
3 Country  
4 Period  
5 Section(s)  
6 Obliged
theme (if so, which)
7 Closed
Ty/Open Ty
8 Formal
Ty/Informal Ty
9 Publication
of Compositions
10 Original
or published compositions
11 Judge(s)  
12 Number
of entries
13 Number
of participating composers
14 Number
of participating countries
15 Number
of compositions allowed in the award
16 Number
of awarded compositions
17 Award
published in


form should be filled in as complete as possible and is to be sent, together
with the A-form and all B-forms
(one form for each tournament judged) to:

Annex 7 to Minutes Wageningen 2001

Amendment of the Statutes

New wording of §III.6:

  1. To support and assist the president and to represent him in the event of
    a temporary impediment or at his special request, three(3) Vice-Presidents
    shall be elected.

New wording of §IV:

§ IV. Election of Officers

  1. Elections to the Praesidium shall be held at every fourth meeting of
    the Commission. Voting shall take place for all four posts in the same year.
    However, if a Praesidium post falls permanently vacant during the term of
    office, a special election may be held for the relevant post, if the commission
    deems this appropriate, but the candidate elected shall serve only for the
    remainder of the original four-year period.
  2. In an election year a special meeting of the Commission shall be arranged
    for the purpose of voting, not later than the penultimate day of the Congress,
    and at no later than 21.00 on that day.
  3. At the opening session of the Commission in an election year, the President
    shall nominate a working party of three persons from different countries
    to supervise the elections. One of the three should normally be the Secretary.
    No current delegate or deputy may be a member of this working party.
  4. A delegate wishing to stand for election to the Praesidium shall give
    his name on paper to the working party by 22.00 on the day before the
    elections are to be held. The paper must show clearly the post or posts
    for which the delegate wishes to stand.
  5. The working party shall display a list of the candidates for each post
    by 9.00 on the day of the elections. No additions shall then be made to
    this list, except as provided for in para. 7 below. Withdrawals, however,
    will be permitted.
  6. The election shall be held in a closed session of the Commission. One
    member of the working party (not the Secretary) shall take the chair.
    Each post shall be dealt with separately, starting with the President
    and continuing through the Vice-Presidents in order. The chairman shall
    read out the names of the candidates for the Presidency. At this point
    each of these candidates may, if he so wishes, address the Commission
    for a maximum of 10 minutes. Afterwards there can be a discussion. The
    chairman shall then invite delegates to record in secret their vote for
    one of these candidates, on paper provided for the purpose. Any candidate
    obtaining a majority of the votes cast shall be declared elected. Otherwise
    delegates will vote again between the two candidates gaining the most
    votes in the first round. In the event of a tie in the second round, the
    chairman shall call a recess of not more than 10 minutes, after which
    the vote shall be taken again. If the result is again a tie, the chairman
    shall determine the outcome by selecting one of two folded slips of paper
    each bearing the name of one candidate.
  7. Any candidate defeated in the vote for the Presidency may now declare
    his candidature for any or all of the posts of Vice-President, if he has
    not already done so. The chairman shall read out the names of candidates
    for the post of 1st Vice-President. Any candidate may address the Commission
    for not more than 10 minutes, provided he has not already spoken.
  8. In the event of a tie, the same procedure shall be adopted as for the
  9. The posts of 2nd and 3rd Vice-President shall be dealt with in exactly
    the same way, with previously defeated candidates being entitled to stand,
    and candidates having the same right to address the Commission for a maximum
    of 10 minutes.
  10. All the voting shall take place within the same session.
  11. The duties of the working party shall cease as soon as the new Praesidium
    has been elected in its entirety.


International judges


Abbreviations and symbols:

2, 3, m = Direct twomovers, threemovers, moremovers
e = endgame studies
s = selfmates
h = helpmates
f = fairies
r = retros
math = mathematical problems
† = deceased

Argentina | Armenia | Austria | Azerbaijan | Belarus | Bosnia-Herzegovina | Brazil | Bulgaria | Croatia | CSFR | Czech Rep. | Denmark | Finland | France | Georgia | Germany | Great Britain | Greece | Hungary | India | Indonesia | Israel | Italy | Japan | Kirgistan | Latvia | Lithuania | Macedonia | Morocco | Netherlands | Norway | Poland | Romania | Russia | Serbia | Slovakia | Slovenia | Spain | Sweden | Switzerland | Ukraine | USA | USSR |

1956    Arnoldo Ellerman (†)
1965    Horatio L. Musante (†)
2016    Mario Guido García (e)

1956    Genrikh Kasparyan (†)

1957    Stefan Eberle (†)
        Josef Halumbirek (†)
        Hans Lepuschütz (†)
        Alois Wotawa (†)
1966    Alois Johandl (†)
1968    Klaus Wenda (3,m,s,f)
1971    Friedrich Chlubna (†)
1981    Helmut Zajic (†)

2009    Ilham Aliev (e)
2016    Kenan Velikhanov (h)
2022    Elmar Abdullayev (3)

1959    Vatslav Gebelt (†)
2001    Vladimir Sychev (2,3)
2004    Aleksandr Mikholap (m,s)
2014    Viktor Volchek (3,m)
2018    Aleksandr Bulavka (h,f)
2019    Viktor Zaitsev (h)

Bosnia & Herzegovina
1972    Fadil Abdurahmanovic (s,h,f)

1956    Godefroy J. Martin (†)
        Joao-Baptista Santiago (†)
1974    José Figueiredo (†)
        Felix A. Sonnenfeld (†)
1989    Mario Figueiredo (†)
1990    Caetano Belliboni (†)

1956    Vladimir Rangelov (3,m)
1957    Archavir Tanelian (†)
1967    Nikolai Dimitrov (†)
1977    Venelin Alaikov (†)
1982    Ivan Ignatiev (m,s,h,f)
1987    Vladimir Zabunov (†)
1989    Petko Petkov (3,m,s,h,f)
2010	Diyan Kostadinov (s,f)

1956    Nenad Petrovic (†)
        Hrvoje Bartolovic (†)
1958    Zvonimir Hernitz (2,3,m,s,h,f)
        Savo Zlatic (†)
1972    Branko Pavlovic (†)
2017    Ivo Tominic (2)

1956    Frantisek Dedrle (†)
        Jindrich Fritz (†)
        Miroslav Havel (†)
        Frantisek Hladik (†)
        Artur Mandler (†)
        Vladimir Pachman (†)
        Ladislav Prokes (†)
        Frantisek J. Prokop (†)
        Jan Wenda (†)
1957    Bretislav Soukup-Bardon (†)
1958    Ilja Mikan (†)

Czech Republic
1960    Jindrich Sulc (†)
1988    Miroslav Sindelar (†)
1991    Vladimir Kos (†)
1997    Vladimir Bunka (s,h,e)
1998    Jaroslav Brada (†)
2008	Michal Dragoun (h,f)
2010	Jiri Jelinek (3,s)
        Vaclav Kotesovec (2,h,f)
        Emil Vlasák (e)
2012	Jaroslav Polasek (e)

1956    Walther Jörgensen (†)
        K.A.K. Larsen (†)
        Oskar G. Lauritzen (†)
        P. Rasch Nielsen (†)
        Vilhelm Röpke (†)
1959    Lars Larsen (†)
1966    Arthur Madsen (†)
        Jan Mortensen (†)
        Rudolf Prytz (†)
2015    Henrik Juel (r)

1957    Aarne Dunder (†)
        Julius Gunst (†)
        Jan Hannelius (†)
        Visa Kivi (†)
1958    Osmo Kaila (†)
        Matti Myllyniemi (†)
        Erkki A. Wirtanen (†)
1966    Antti G. Ojanen (†)
1972    Pauli Perkonoja (e)
1979    Erkki Heinonen (†)
1984    Kauko Virtanen (†)
1993    Kari Valtonen (h)
2011	Kenneth Solja (3,h)

1957    Pierre Biscay (†)
        Andre Cheron (†)
        Damien Grossi (†)
        Vitaly Halberstadt (†)
        Gabriel Leon-Martin (†)
1958    Gabriel Authier (2)
        Roger Diot (†)
1959    Alphonse Grunenwald (†)
        Roland Lecomte (†)
        Jean Oudot (†)
        Louis Scotti (2)
        Camil Seneca (†)
        Charles Wermelinger (†)
1965    Pierre Monreal (†)
        Jacques Savournin (2)
1976    Jean Pierre Boyer (†)
1978    Yves Cheylan (†)
        Bruno Fargette (3,m)
1983    Jean Morice (†)
1984    Claude Goumondy (3,h)
1986    Francois Fargette (m)
1988    Claude Wiedenhoff (2)
1989    Denis Blondel (†)
1993    Michel Caillaud (r)
1995    Laurent Joudon (3,m)
2000    Yves Tallec (†)
2014    Thierry le Gleuher (r)
2016    Alain Biénabe (†)
2023    Gérard Doukhan (2,3)

1980    Vazha Neidze (†)
1993    Velimir Kalandadze (†)
        Revaz Tavariani (†)
1994    David Gurgenidze (e)
1995    Iuri Akobia (†)
2016    Givi Mosiashvili (2)
2021    Ferhat Karmil (m)

1957    Hermann Albrecht (†)
        Josef Breuer (†)
        Herbert Grasemann (†)
        Gerhard Kaiser (†)
1958    Wilhelm Hagemann (†)
        Gerhard Latzel (†)
        John Niemann (†)
        Wolfgang Unzicker (†)
        Hans Vetter (†)
        Wolfgang Weber (†)
1959    Peter Kniest (†)
        Wilhelm Massmann (†)
        Werner Speckmann (†)
1962    Herbert Ahues (†)
        Hans Hilmar Staudte (†)
1964    Karl Fabel (†)
1965    Rudolf Leopold (†)
        Michael Schneider (†)
1966    Gerhard W. Jensch (†)
        Theodor Steudel (†)
1967    Willy Popp (†)
1971    Baldur Kozdon (3,m)
        Hans Peter Rehm (3,m,s,h,f)
1972    Manfred Zucker (†)
1974    Godehard Murkisch (m)
1975    Karl Junker (†)
1976    Fritz Hoffmann (†)
1979    Dieter Müller (†)
1983    Hans-Dieter Leiss (†)
1985    Günter Büsing (h)
        Hans Gruber (m,e,s,h,f,r,math)
        Werner Keym (r,math)
1986    Stefan Dittrich (2)
        Günter Schiller (†)
1987    Hermann Weissauer (†)
1988    Horst Böttger (3,m)
        Franz Pachl (2,h)
        Volker Zipf (3,m)
1989    Hemmo Axt (3,m)
        Bernd Ellinghoven (†)
1990    Hartmut Laue (3,m,s)
        Gerhard Schoen (m,f)
1992    Günter Lauinger (r,math)
        Helmuth Morgenthaler (3)
1996    Wieland Bruch (2,3)
1998    Mirko Degenkolbe (2,3,m)
1999    Markus Manhart (h,f)
2000    Udo Degener (2)
2004    Wolfgang Dittmann (†)
        Frank Müller (s)
2010	Bernd Gräfrath (r)
        Manfred Rittirsch (h,f)
        Sven Trommler (2,3,m,s,h,f)
2012	Thomas Brand (h,r)
2013    Martin Minski (e)
2014    Siegfried Hornecker (e)

Great Britain
1957    Cyril S. Kipping (†)
        Edward Boswell (†)
        Guy W. Chandler (†)
        Comins Mansfield (†)
        Robin C.O. Matthews (†)
        E. H. Shaw (†)
        Erich Zepler (†)
1958    Harold Lommer (†)
1959    John Roycroft (e)
1960    Gerald F. Anderson (†)
1961    Hugh F. Blandford (†)
1964    Charles E. Kemp (†)
1966    Arthur R. Gooderson (†)
        Dennison Nixon (+)
1967    Barry P. Barnes (2)
1972    John M. Rice (2,h,f)
1974    Colin Vaughan (†)
1975    Anthony Dickins (†)
        Sir Jeremy Morse (†)
1978    Cedric C. Lytton (h,f)
1980    Norman Macleod (†)
1987    Luciano Citeroni (†)
1991    Colin Sydenham (†)
1999    Michael McDowell (h)
2012	Christopher Reeves (†)

1988    Demetrios Kapralos (†)
        Byron Zappas (†)
1990    Harry Fougiaxis (h)
2010	Kostas Prentos (r)

1956    Róbert Darvas (†)
        Ferenc Fleck (†)
        László Lindner (†)
        Ödon Nagy (†)
        Julius Neukomm (†)
        György Paros (†)
        László Schor (†)
        Zoltán Zilahi (†)
1960    Florian Kovacs (†)
1964    Arpad Földeak (†)
1979    György Bakcsi (†)
        Tivadar Kardos (†)
        József Szöghy (†)
1983    Attila Benedek (†)
1984    Attila Koranyi (†)
2004    László Ányos (†)

1959    Swaminatha Subrahmanyarn (†)

1977    Touw Hian Bwee (2,3)

1956    Efim Rukhlis (†)
1959    Zvi Hashavit (†)
1964    Milu Milescu (†)
        Yosi Retter (†)
        Yeshayahu Segenreich (†)
1978    Hillel Aloni (†)
        Uri Avner (†)
        Shlomo Seider (†)
1980    Raffi Ruppin (3,s)
1982    Aaron Hirschenson (2)
1983    Mordechay Shorek (h)
1987    Theodor Tauber (†)
1988    Yochanan Afek (e)
1999    Paz Einat (2,3)
2003    Amatzia Avni (e)
2013    Michael Grushko (f)
2022    Mark Erenburg (m,s)

1956    Adriano Chicco (†)
        Ottavio Stocchi (†)
1969    Umberto Castellari (†)
1972    Oscar Bonivento (†)
        Gino Mentasti (†)
1985    Mario Camorani (†)
        Giorgio Mirri (†)
1988    Rosario Notaro (2)
1992    Francesco Simoni (2,h)
2001    Mario Parrinello (2,h)
2007    Antonio Garofalo (2,3,h)
2013    Marco Guida (2)
2016    Marco Bonavoglia (†)

2011	Tadashi Wakashima (f)

1998    Valery Shanshin (2)

1956    Alfreds Dombrovskis (†)

2018    Mecislovas Rimkus (†)

1977	Georgi Hadzi-Vaskov (s,h)
1979    Zivko Janevski (s,h)
1990    Nikola Stolev (h)
1993    Zlatko Mihaijloski (m)
        Bosko Miloseski (2,h)
2002	Zoran Gavrilovski (2,3,m,s,h)

2011	Abdelaziz Onkoud (2,3,h)

1958    Johannes J. Burbach (2,3,s,h,f)
        Pieter ten Cate (†)
        Gerardus Drese (†)
        Cornelius J. de Feijter (†)
        Cor Goldschmeding (†)
        Albert M. Koldijk (†)
        Meindert Niemeijer (†)
        Johan Selman Jr (†)
        Eeltje Visserman (†)
        Geert Smit (†)
1959    Jan H. Marwitz (†)
        Wouter J. G. Mees (†)
1964    Jacobus Haring (†)
        Henk le Grand (2,3,m,h)
        Piet le Grand (†)
1985    Frank Visbeen (†)
1989    Jan van Reek (†)
1993    Henk Prins (2)
2001    Harold van der Heijden (e)

1957    David Hjelle (†)
1966    Nils G. G. van Dijk (†)

1956    Tadeusz Czarnecki (†)
        Saturnin Limbach (†)
        Marian Wrobel (†)
1959    Jan Rusek (†)
1960    Grzegorz Grzeban (†)
        Mieczyslav Pfeiffer (†)
1967    Eugeniusz Iwanow (2,3,s)
1971    Wladyslaw Rosolak (†)
1974    Leopold Szwedowski (†)
1983    Jan Rusinek (e)
1988    Waldemar Tura (2,3,s,f)
2000    Ryszard Kapica (†)

1956    Paul Farago (†)
        Leon Löwenton (†)
        Paul Leibovici (†)
1958    Emilian Dobrescu (2)
        Anatole F. Ianovcic (†)
        Virgil Nestorescu (†)
        Radu Voia (†)
1974    Eugen Rusenescu (†)
1978    Iosif Grosu (†)
1982    Mircea Manolescu (†)
1989    Paul Joita (†)
2000    Neculai Chivu (†)
2001    Valeriu Petrovici (2,s)
2004    Nicolae Micu (e)
2007    Eric Huber (f)
2011	Dinu-Ioan Nicula (f)
2023    Vlaicu Crisan (h,f,r)
        Paul Raican (f,r)

1956    Yury Averbakh (†)
        Michael Botvinnik (†)
        Aleksandr Grin (†)
        Aleksandr Kazantsev (†)
        Leonid Zagoruiko (†)
1957    Vasily Smyslov (†)
1961    David Bronstein (†)
1965    Viktor Chepizhny (2,3,m)
        Anatoly Kuznetsov (†)
        Yakov Vladimirov (3,m)
1971    Leopold Mitrofanov (†)
1984    Yury Sushkov (†)
1987    Andrej Lobusov (†)
        Aleksandr Maximovskikh (e)
1989    Vyacheslav Kopaev (†)
        Nikita Plaksin (r)
1994    Aleksandr Feoktistov (m)
1997    Vladimir Kozhakin (3)
1998    Yury Fokin (†)
        Arkady Khait (e)
        Igor Vereshchagin (r)
1999    Valery Barsukov (h)
        Anatoly Slesarenko (2)
2000    Andrey Selivanov (s)
2004    Vladimir Zheltonozhko (†)
2005	Yakov Rossomakho (2,3)
2008	Aleksandr Nazarov (r)
2010	Evgeny Fomichev (†)
2011	Oleg Efrosinin (m)
2012	Vladislav Nefyodov (h)
2013    Boris Shorokhov (h)
        Vadim Vinokurov (†)
2014    Valery Gurov (h)
2017    Aleksandr Kuzovkov (3,m)
2018    Aleksey Ivunin (h)
        Sergey Osintsev (e)
        Dmitri Turevski (h,f)
2021    Igor Agapov (3)
        Aleksandr Azhusin (s)
        Sergey Bilyk (3)
        Valery Kirillov (m,s)
        Pavel Murashev (2)
        Anatoly Styopochkin (s)
        Aleksandr Sygurov (3,m)

1977    Petar Ivanic (†)
        Milan Velimirovic (†)
1989    Marjan Kovacevic (2)
2012	Darko Saljic (2)
2015    Dragan Stojnic (2,f)

1956    Ludovit Lacny (†)
        Alexander Pituk (†)
1966    Bedrich Formanek (†)
1971    Juraj Brabec (2)
1987    Karol Mlynka (†)
1988    Zoltan Labai (2,3)
2000    Juraj Lörinc (h,f)
2009	Michal Hlinka (e)
2010	Lubos Kekely (e)
2017    Ladislav Packa (h,f)
        Stefan Sovik (3,m,s)

1977    Ljubomir Ugren (m,s,h)
1984    Marko Klasinc (s,h,f,r)

1957    Antonio Arguelles (†)
        J. Mandil (†)
        Julio Peris Pardo (†)
        Estanislao Puig Ambros (†)
        Juan Zaldo (†)
1960    Carlos R. Lafora (†)
1965    Juan Garcia Llamas (†)
        Francisco Salazar (†)
1966    Efren Petite (†)
        Rafael Candela Sanz (†)
2012	Jose Antonio Coello Alonso (2,3)

1956    Axel Akerblom (†)
        Alexander Hildebrand (†)
        Herbert Hultberg (†)
        Gustav Jönsson (2)
        Jan Knöppel (†)
        Bror Larsson (†)
        Frithjof Lindgren (†)
        Helmer Ternblad (†)
        Allan Werle (†)
1966    Bo Lindgren (†)
1984    Kjell Widlert (3,m,s,h,f,r)
1989    Anders Uddgren (h,f,r)
1992    Bengt Ingre (†)

1957    Hans Ott (†)
        Alfred Sutter (†)
1959    Samuel Isenegger (†)
1960    Karl Flatt (†)
1977    Werner Issler (2)
1985    Hans Schudel (†)
1989    Roland Baier (3,h,f)
1999    Thomas Maeder (h,f)

1960    Valentin Rudenko (†)
1966    Filip Bondarenko (†)
1984    Viktor Melnichenko (†)
1997    Mikhail Marandyuk (3,m)
1998    Yury Gordian (†)
2003    Roman Zalokotsky (†)
2004    Vasil Dyachuk (2)
        Yevgeni Reitsen (h)
        Sergey Nikolaevich Tkachenko (e)
2010	Aleksandr Semenenko (h)
        Valery Semenenko (h)
2011	Valery Kopyl (2,h,s)
2013    Mikhail Gershinsky (†)
        Gennady Kozyura (†)
2017    Vladislav Tarasyuk (e)
2018    Yury Bilokin (h)
2021    Mikola Chernyavsky (2)
        Anatoly Mityushin (h)
2022    Sergey Borodavkin (s)

1956    Julius Buchwald (†)
        Vincent L. Eaton (†)
        N. Gabor (†)
        Eric Hassberg (†)
        Edgar Holladay (†)
1957    Robert Burger (†)
        Richard Cheney (†)
        Kenneth Howard (†)
        Walter Jacobs (†)
1958    Newman Guttman (†)
        Vaux Wilson (†)
1964    Walter Korn (†)
1987    David Brown (2,h,f)
        Toma Garai (†)
2011	Mike Prcic (s)
2016    Eugene Rosner (2)

1956    Vladimir Bron(†)
        Vitaly Chekhover (†)
        Aleksandr Gerbstman (†)
        Tigran Gorgiev (†)
        Abram S. Gurvich (†)
        Rafael Kofman (†)
        Vladimir Koroljkov (†)
        Lev Loshinsky (†)
        Boris Zakharov (†)
        Vladimir Shif (†)
        Evgeny Umnov (†)
1957    Paul Keres (†)
1959    Alexey Kopnin (†)
1960    Gia Nadareishvili (†)
1961    Aleksandr Baturin (†)
1965    Avenir Popandopulo (†)
1966    Aleksandr P. Kuznetsov (†)
1967    Vitold Yakimchik (†)
1968    Aleksandr Kozlov (†)

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International masters


(Honoris Causa)
André Chéron (†)
Arnoldo Ellerman (†)
Aleksandr Gerbstmann (†)
Jan Hartong (†)
Cyril S. Kipping (†)
Great Britain
1961 Vitaly Chekhover (†)
Nils G. G. van Dijk (†)
Leonid Zagoruïko (†)
1965 Robin C. O. Matthews (†) Great Britain
1966 Hans Lepuschütz (†)
Alois Wotawa (†)
1967 Axel Åkerblom (†)
Barry P. Barnes
Adriano Chicco (†)
Karl Fabel (†)
Werner Speckmann (†)
Great Britain
1969 Tigran Gorgiev (†)
Pauli Perkonoja
Carel J. R. Sammelius (†)
1971 Alois Johandl (†)
Eduard Livshits
Ilja Mikan (†)
Vitaly Tyavlovsky
1973 Josef Breuer (†)
Gerardus Drese (†)
Knud Hannemann (†)
Jan Knöppel (†)
Rafael Kofman (†)
Aleksandr Kuznetsov (†)
Lars Larsen (†)
Pieter ten Cate (†)
Erich Zepler (†)
Great Britain
1974 Harold Lommer (†)
Stefan Schneider (†)
1975 Gerald Anderson (†)
Aleksandr Kazantsev (†)
Peter Kniest (†)
Alexeï Kopnin (†)
Gerhard Latzel (†)
Meindert Niemeijer (†)
Evgeny Umnov (†)
Great Britain
1976 Walther Jørgensen (†)
Michael Lipton (†)
Jan Rusek (†)
Great Britain
1977 Vatslav Gebelt (†)
Jan Hannelius (†)
Alexander Hildebrand (†)
Edgar Holladay (†)
1979 Filipp Bondarenko (†)
Friedrich Chlubna (†)
Baldur Kozdon
Aleksandr Sarychev (†)
Michael Schneider (†)
Vilmos Schneider (†)
Leopold Szwedowski (†)
Erkki A. Wirtanen (†)
1980 Alex Casa (†)
André Fossum (†)
Anatoly Kuznetsov (†)
Leopold Mitrofanov (†)
1984 Velimir Kalandadze (†)
József Korponai (†)
László Lindner (†)
Pavlos Moutecidis
Avenir Popandopulo (†)
Francisco Salazar (†)
Sergeï Shedeï (†)
1985 Shlomo Seider (†) Israel
1988 Krasimir Gandev (†)
Aurel Karpati (†)
Leonard Katsnelson
Attila Korányi (†)
Yosi Retter (†)
Piotr Ruszczynski
Ján Valuška
1989 Alfreds Dombrovskis (†)
Vladimir Erokhin (†)
Viktor Melnichenko (†)
Vasha Neidze (†)
Yury Sushkov (†)
1990 Jean-Pierre Boyer (†) France
1992 Yehuda Hoch
Dieter Müller (†)
Manne Persson (†)
Narayan Shankar Ram
1993 Fyodor Davidenko
Valentin Lukyanov (†)
Bernhard Schauer (†)
1995 Pál Benkö (†)
Yury Gordian (†)
1996 Juraj Brabec
Jean Haymann
1997 Henk Prins Netherlands
2001 Harry Fougiaxis
Vyacheslav Kopaev (†)
Zdravko Maslar (†)
Viktor Sizonenko
Colin Sydenham (†)
Great Britain
2004 Aleksandr Kislyak
Zoltán Labai
Torsten Linss
2005 Aleksandr Bakharev
Stefan Dittrich
bernd ellinghoven (†)
L’udovít Lačný (†)
Jorge J. Lois
Štefan Sovík
George P. Sphicas
Sergeï N. Tkachenko
2007 Nils Adrian Bakke
Jorge M. Kapros (†)
Vitaly Kovalenko (†)
Hartmut Laue
Sergeï Smotrov
Thorsten Zirkwitz (†)
2008 Gady Costeff
Árpád Molnár (†)
2009 Andreï Frolkin Ukraine
2010 Christer Jonsson
Marek Kwiatkowski
Thierry le Gleuher
Yury Marker
Aleksandr Postnikov (†)
Francesco Simoni
2011 Michael Herzberg
Leonid Makaronez
Daniel Papack (renounced the title in May 2020)
Andreï Vysokosov
2012 Pavel Arestov
Wolfgang Dittmann (†)
Michal Hlinka
Martin Hoffmann
Vladislav Nefyodov
Sergeï Osintsev
Yakov Rossomakho (†)
Anatoly Vasilenko
Dieter Werner
Menachem Witztum
Sergeï Zakharov (†)
Roman Zalokotsky (†)
Volker Zipf
2013 Iuri Akobia (†)
Dmitry Baïbikov
Boris Shorokhov
Gerard Smits
2014 Evgeni Bourd
Arieh Grinblat (†)
Christian Poisson
Aleksandr Sygurov
Viktor Volchek
2015 Lev Grolman (†)
Eugeniusz Iwanow
Diyan Kostadinov
Gerhard Maleika
Christopher Reeves (†)
Frank Richter
Jacques Rotenberg
Marian Wróbel (†, upon request by the country)
Great Britain
2016 Vlaicu Crișan
Borislav Gadjanski
Givi Mosiashvili
Arno Tüngler
Paul Farago (†, upon request by the country)
Josef Halumbirek (†, upon request by the country)
Ladislav Knotek (†, upon request by the country)
K.A.K. Larsen (†, upon request by the country)
Josef Moravec (†, upon request by the country)
Ladislav Prokeš (†, upon request by the country)
František Richter (†, upon request by the country)
Johannes J. Rietveld (†, upon request by the country)
Vitold Yakimchik (†, upon request by the country)
Czech Republic
Czech Republic
Czech Republic
Czech Republic
2017 Paz Einat
Viktor Kapusta
Uwe Karbowiak
Valery Kirillov
Grigory Popov
2018 Yury Gorbatenko
Vitaly Medintsev
Zlatko Mihajloski
2019 Silvio Baier
Ofer Comay
Nicolas Dupont
Ralf Krätschmer
Vasil Markovtsy
2020 Michael Barth
Marco Guida
Sergey Khachaturov
C.G.S. Narayanan
Emanuel Navon
Viktoras Paliulionis
Aleksandr Pankratiev
Vladislav Tarasyuk
2021 Mark Erenburg
Mikhail Khramtsevich
Olivier Schmitt
2022 Amatzia Avni
Kostas Prentos
Árpád Rusz
Ivo Tominić
United States
2023 Eric Huber
Anatoly Skripnik
Mihailo Stojnić
Karen Sumbatyan
Dmitry Turevsky
Igor Yarmonov